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Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report October 1, 1956"

FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram 
Minister 



F. A. MacDougall 
Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
Wildlife Rabies. - by C. H. D. Clarke 1 



Report on a Trip to the Slate Islands, July 13-17, 

1953, - by A. deVos 5 

Report on Aerial Survey of Slate Islands, Jan. 26th, 

1954. - by C. E. Perrie 7 

Slate Islands Investigation, Sept. 12-17, 1955. 

- by C. W. Douglas 8 

Kenora Report on Helicopter Survey of Moose on Big 

Island, 1955. - by R. Simkoe 13 



Moose Season Report for Geraldton District, 1955. 

- by H. G. Cumming 23 



Moose Season Report, North Bay District, 1955. 

- by C. 0. Bartlett 35 



Moose Season Report, Sioux Lookout District, 1955. 

- by J. A. Macfie 41 

Notes on Birds Observed at Big Island, Lake of the 

Woods, Jan. 22 - Feb. 3, 1953. - A. T. Cringan 53 

Report on Woodcock Census, May 1955, Sault Ste. 

Marie District. - by M. W. I. Smith 55 

Waterfowl Breeding Ground Survey, Tweed District, 

1956. - by W. W. Bittle 59 

Sault Ste. Marie Creel Census, 1955. 

- by K. H. Loftus 63 



Table of Contents cont. 



Page 

Occurrence of Carp on the North Shore of Lake 
Superior, Port Arthur and Geraldton Districts. 

- by R. A. Ryder 71 

The Lake Scugog Carp Removal Programme, 

- by H. R. McCrimmon 72 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

WILDLIFE RABIES 

by 
C. H. D. Clarke 



One of the most important developments in the study 
of rabies recently has been the removal of rabies, in so far as 
our thinking is concerned, from the farmyard and the street to 
fields and forests . 

It is true that even in Pasteur's day attention was 
paid to rabid wild animals, and in his youth he was much 
impressed by the panic in his home area created by a rabid wolf. 
It is a very curious feature of the disease in North American 
that we have no parallel history of rabid wolves and foxes 
causing human deaths,, Never in fact, in the history of this 
continent, has anyone been killed by a wolf. One could speculate 
for a long time on this subject, but anyway, when the Arctic Dog 
Disease, which has periodically swept foxes, wolves and dogs 
since the Arctic has been explored, and which has apparently 
never brought a human death, was investigated a few years ago, 
rabies was found to be an element in it, and the course of the 
disease has been followed from the arctic to the southern limits 
of Canada in Alberta and Ontario, carried by wild animals and 
principally by foxes. Simultaneously rabies has been found to 
be a disease of a surprising variety of animals in U.S.A. and 
all over the world. 

Personally I have no first hand knowledge of the 
disease. I have attended two round table discussions by persons 
working on the disease in the U.S. and tried to keep up to date 
on events here. This is because I am concerned with wildlife 
and rabies now appears as a wildlife disease. A virologist to 
whom I listened earlier this month remarked that authorities 
with whom he had been in touch in India now consider the 
"classical 5 *, if we may call it, dog rabies of that land, where 
several thousand people die annually from it, to be a natural 
disease of jackal and wild dog, two species which account for 
most of the mixed ancestry of our domestic dogs. 

The most important single fact from the wildlife 
point of view is the evidence for some form of host specificity. 
The rabies specialists now speak of strains. In Pennsylvania 
and Tennessee for example, rabies is prevalent in the southern 
grey fox. There are equal numbers of red foxes, but they get 
the disease only incidentally, along with dogs, raccoons and 
domestic livestock, presumably whenever a grey fox bites them. 
In Iowa, and adjacent areas they have plenty of both kinds of 
fox and raccoons, but their rabies is in skunks of two species. 
Both foxes, the raccoon, dog and livestock just pick it up 
incidentally. In Florida there is a "raccoon rabies", so called 
because it parallels the other "strains". In Texas and Mew 
Mexico there is an extraordinary incidence in an insect-eating 
colonial bat, the Mexican free-tailed bat. It is rather hard 
for other animals to catch rabies from this bat, but bats of 



- 2 - 

other species that occasionally get drawn into clusters of the 
Mexican free-tail become infected. Most unfortunately it was 
demonstrated on the person of one of the research workers in 
Texas that Texas bat rabies is fatal to man. Is it the same 
as the rabies of blood-sucking bats in tropical America? The 
answer will be known soon as all strains are now being tested 
by the U.S. authorities. The tests include a remarkable series 
of animal passages in the most extraordinary collection of 
experimental animals that I have ever heard of. 

Does the Ontario rabies outbreak resemble those in 
U.S.? Yes, and especially in host relationships. It has 
appeared as a red fox rabies. Whenever it has been possible 
to trace a case in other animals it goes back to a red fox. 
Therefore, we in the wildlife field become primarily concerned 
with the biology of the red fox. Has there ever been a red 
fox rabies in Ontario before? There probably has, we feel. 
Only in recent years have foxes adapted themselves to life 
in densely populated areas. Those of us who lived through our 
most active hunting years in old Ontario in the 20 v s rarely 
saw a fox. Not until the late ? 30's and early 40 9 s did they 
become abundant. In the north bush country rabies could have 
come and gone and we would have been none the wiser. It is 
obvious that there could not have been any rabies of a type 
carried largely by foxes in an area where foxes were scarce 
such as Southern Ontario once was. 

Now I can see most of your minds have jumped ahead 
of me to the thought s 'why not make them scarce again?" 
Although I have by no means dealt adequately with any phase of 
the biology of foxes I know that I can retain your attention 
only by dealing with the matters uppermost in your minds. 

The number of foxes is hard to assess. They range for 
several miles and individuals pursued normally show themselves 
familiar with 25 or 30 square miles sometimes much more. 
Furthermore, in the last two centuries for which fur trade 
records are abundant foxes have varied from abundance to scarcity 
in a regular cycle of about ten years. There is not a shred of 
evidence that hunting has had any effect at all. Peak popula- 
tions in Southern Ontario at the beginning of the hunting season 
have certainly been in the order of at least two per square 
mile, or roughly 200,000, We have actually assessed populations 
that were much higher, but poorer areas would average out. If 
a management program were set up, to pelt as many as possible and 
still maintain production at a high level we could quite reasonably 
harvest upwards of 150,000 of these animals each year, yet the 
peak kills for the whole province, not just the south, have been 
in the order of 50,000. Could we by any means increase these 
kills? Some have suggested bounties. May I simply point out that 
during the years when the red fox made its big increase in 
southern Ontario pelt prices were over f ^20.00 and the kill was 



- 3 - 

about 50,000. This |20.00 bounty, for such it was, and collected 
with a lot less bother than any provincial or municipal bounty, 
obviously did not even slow down their increase. I give you 
this as evidence that an expenditure of a million dollars in 
bounties would get you nowhere. Today fox pelts are worth 
nothing, but during the years in which this has been true they 
have had years of plenty and of shortage, obviously controlled 
by natural agencies, and peaks have been no higher than before. 
Foxes are biologically capable of quadrupling their numbers 
every year. If they did so normally our 200,000 would jump so 
fast that we would soon be waist deep in millions of foxes. 
The usual condition for an animal of such high reproductive 
potential is that normally few of the young reach maturity. 
This is true of foxes. However, it can also be said that when 
foxes are greatly reduced in numbers, whatever the cause, the 
survivors find themselves in very favourable position, biologi- 
cally speaking and the full reproductive potential may be realized, 
In other words foxes have a tremendous power to recuperate their 
numbers. All this enters into the next question. "Why not 
poison them?' 1 ' The answer is that no poison campaign that has 
been assessed by proper statistical standards has resulted in 
control. There have been several such campaigns in the U.S. 
The published report from Alberta which some of you may know will 
not stand up to any statistical scrutiny. To be blunt, it makes 
a number of claims that are not borne out by the evidence given. 
I fail to see any significant difference in the way in which 
rabies progressed from north to south in Alberta, and the way 
it did the same in Ontario. It might be possible at great 
expense to wipe out most of the foxes in a small area, but they 
could be expected to recover. If it becomes apparent that 
rabies has settled down to live with us we should set up a 
program on an experimental basis, with adequate controls and 
high statistical standards. If our purpose is to test the 
effect of such a campaign on the incidence of rabies the first 
requisite will be experimental areas with a significant number 
of cases of rabies. So far we have not had any such development 
and we don 9 t care if we never do. We could do with more infor- 
mation on foxes in any case. I can add that hitherto in this 
province our activities in the wildlife field have been on a 
very modest scale indeed, and considerable expansion would be 
necessary both in research and management, before we could 
undertake anything very ambitious. 

The key to what we are to look for lies in the fact 
that foxes fluctuate naturally. They are now already scarce 
in the area where rabies first appeared. It is, of course, 
certain that they will again become numerous, but we can permit 
ourselves to hope that rabies will be "diluted" long enough to 
die out. Southern Ontario is such good fox country that one 
hesitates to predict what will happen here. We can expect foxes 
to decrease but we do not know how far down they will go or how 
far they need to go for rabies to lose its hold. Apparently in 
New York State there are areas without rabies that have just 
as many foxes as those with rabies, which leaves us completely 
confused. 



- 4 - 

One further question is whether rabies is itself a 
causative agent in natural declines of foxes . Nobody knows. 
Certainly it kills foxes, but those who know how lethal fox 
distemper is, and how much more easily it spreads, cannot help 
feeling that it is more likely to be the one most important 
natural control of foxes. 



- 5 - 
REPORT ON A TRIP TO THE SLATE ISLANDS, JULY 13-17, 1953. 

by 
A. de Vos 



Purpose of the Trip 

1. To accompany Dr. Petrides of Michigan State College, and ten 
of his students to the Islands and show them caribou, their 
browsing activities and movements. 

2. To compare the findings of this trip with those obtained by 
A. T. Cringan three years ago. 

Daily Observations 

July 13 - Trip along trail to Mud Lake and further down to the 
South shore of Patterson Island. Tracks were observed on most of 
this trail. These possibly represented four different adults and 
two yearlings. No evidence of snowshoe hares. 

Browsing was observed on Aralia nudicaulis , Aste r 
macrophyllus , Acer spicatum (winter and summer) fireweed and 
red-osier dogwood. 

July 14 - Trip to Mud Lake. The mud does not appear to be eaten 
as much now as when I visited the lick in 1950. Water lily roots 
uprooted and gnawed at. Heavy winter browsing on mountain maple 
close to Mud Lake. No evidence of snowshoe hares. 

Another trip to the small lakes on the west end of 
Mortimer Island indicated a high caribou population there s heavily 
used trails all-over. Water lily roots eaten. 

Observations were made on Mud Lake from 4.15 p.m. - 
6.15 p.m. One cow was observed around 5.45 p.m. for one min. One 
caribou was seen swimming from the south end of Middle Sister 
Island to Patterson Island. 

July 15 - Depuis Island was driven by seven drivers to determine 
whether there were any resident caribou. No evidence of the 
presence of caribou or snowshoe hares could be obtained. Recent 
grazing was noticed on fireweed. Numerous caribou droppings were 
noticed. Grazing on Usnea is considerable. It is practically 
gone up to a level of seven feet. 

A few one mill-acre plots (6.6 ft. square) were studied 
on Patterson Island to determine the amount of grazing on sarsapa- 
rilla and fireweed where it appeared to be heavily utilized. 

The following results were obtained; 
Upper story of forests white birch (close to mature) $0% 

balsam fir 10% 

Mt. ash 10% 

Under story (in order of abundance); mt. maple, balsam fir, yew, 
mt. ash, elder. 



- 6 - 

Plot 1 Plot II Plot III 

grazed un grazed grazed ungrazed grazed ungrazed 

Sarsaparilla 8 26 15 33 39 27 
fireweed 2 17 OS 6 

In the afternoon Middle Sister and East Sister Island 
were driven by 11 men in order to census the caribou populations 
present. One man was stationed in a boat to check on escaping 
caribou. The men who were following the shores were also requested 
to look for swimming animals. On Middle Sister one bull, 2 cows, 
1 yearling and one animal sex and age unknown were observed. On 
East Sister no animals were noticed, although fresh browsing was 
seen on fireweed. The antlers of the bull were nearly full— grown 
although still in the velvet. 

Observations on Mud Lakes 

3,00 to 10.30 a.m. - one cow between 10.00 and 10,30. 
6.25 to 7.45 p.m. - one caribou, sex and age unknown. 

July 16 - A check of Delante Island indicated serious overbrowsing 
conditions similar to those noticed for the larger islands. 
Lichens on the cliffs are seriously overgrazed. The same is true 
°f Usnea . Heavy summer and winter browsing was also noted on 
mountain maple. One bull was observed. His antlers were still in 
velvet and about 3/4 grown. No evidence of snowshoe hares. A 
check along the east shore of Mortimer Island equally revealed 
serious overbrowsing. Lichens on cliffs are entirely killed off, 
except for some cladonia which is growing on steep hillsides out 
of reach of the caribou. No evidence of the presence of snowshoe 
hares. One yearling caribou was seen on trail near Mud Lake. 
Last winter 9 s browse by rabbits in one place on highbush cranberry 
on Patterson Island. 



- 7 - 

REPORT ON AERIAL SURVEY OF SLATE ISLANDS 

JANUARY 26TH, 1954 

by 
C. Ee Perrie 



The purpose of the trip was to try to determine the 
woodland caribou population of the Islands as requested by Dr. 
A, de Voso I was accompanied by Mr. C. W. Douglas, Fish and 
Wildlife Supervisor, White River and Dr. J. K. Reynolds of 
Maple . 

Total time spent over the Slate Islands was 
approximately thirty-three minutes which seemed ample to scan 
the whole area. The altitude of the aircraft was approximately 
800 feet to 1000 feet, visibility was excellent and the speed 
was approximately $5 miles per hour. 

A total of two caribou were observed and approximately 
twenty-five fresh tracks were seen. There had been a fresh 
fall of snow the previous night. 

These observations indicate that the caribou 
population of the Slate Islands does not exceed thirty animals. 

It is recommended that one more aerial survey be 
carried out to substantiate these findings, or to possibly 
discredit them which is unlikely. 



8 



SLATE ISLANDS INVESTIGATION — Sept. 12-17, 1955 



by 
C» Wo Douglas 



A visit to the Slate Island group in Lake Superior 
Geraldtcn Forest District, was planned by Ho G. Cumming, 
Biologist, Geraldton, A, T. Cringan, Biologist, Sioux 
Lookout and the writer. It was intended that the investiga- 
tion should extend from Sept. 12 to Sept, 16. The purpose 
of the trip was to investigate the current status of the 
Woodland Caribou inhabiting the Islands, 

Circumstances arising at the last minute precluded 
Mr, Cringan ? s joining the party and Mr. Curriming had to leave 
on September 14* On that date Conservation Officer J. 
Scott, Pays Plat, joined the writer for the remainder of 
the investigation. 

The trip was of somewhat short duration and the 
weather at times quite inclement precluding the most 
efficient use of even the brief time allotted. It was not 
possible to cover all the ground that would have been 
desirable, engage in detailed browse studies or make pro- 
longed observations at any select points. This report is 
then to be considered as quite preliminary and is submitted 
with all due humility deserving in the light of the prime 
sentence. 

The figures in the following summarized itinerary 
bear reference to those shown on the accompanying map, 
showing the routes followed and persons involved. 

Sept. 12 - Arrive Slate Islands, 2s00 P.M. - 
C.W.D. & H.G.Co -1-6. 

Sept. 13-1-7-1-C.W.D. & H.G.C. 

Sept. 14 — 1-8-14 & 7-1-CW.D. & J.S. 

Sept. 15 — 1-15-18-1, 1-19-1-C.W.D. & J.S. 

Sept. 16 — 1-20-1 J.S. 

Sept. 17 — 1-20-1-C.W.D. & J.S. - Return to Pays 
Plat, 

Observations 

Arriving at 2% 00 P.M. we left camp on a trail to 
the south about one hour later. 

Sept. 12 - Patterson Island Fresh caribou droppings were 
noted on a trail 1/8 mile south of camp. Fresh tracks were 
noted several times. A caribou was put up but not seen at 



- 9 - 

2. The trip continued, along well worn caribou trails, 
to the long bay west of camp and thence to Silver Lake, 
where traces of at least one calf were seen at the east 
end in the sand. Worn trails were present at Silver Lake 
and from there we proceeded to Mud Lake. At the west end 
of this lake caribou tracks were so abundant in the shore- 
line mud as to liken the area to a barnyard. Tracks of a 
yearling and at least one calf caribou were noted in the 
mud. 

From Mud Lake we proceeded to Veronica Lake 
where we saw a caribou at 5» This was quite a large animal 
but no antlers were seen during our very brief glimpse of 
it, suggesting that it may have been a cow whose antlers 
were not obvious. When the animal was started it snorted 
very like a White-tailed Deer and with its white flag erect 
as it ran it also brought to mind this deer. 

Many caribou tracks and trails were noted through- 
out the entire trip, including that portion from Veronica 
Lake back to the camp. 

Sept. 13 - McColl Island Two sports fishermen, staying at 
a camp on McColl Island reported to us that a caribou calf 
in poor condition was browsing in their campyard at 5 o 30 
P.M. September 12. Its left rear leg had been injured. 
It was captured easily by one of the men who experienced 
little trouble restraining it. Unfortunately the men did 
not take advantage of the opportunity to tether the animal 
and although we searched carefully the area about the camp 
we found no sign of it. It could easily have swum to an 
adjoining island or concealed itself from us in the dense 
undergrowth. 

The remainder of the morning and the early after- 
noon were spent in a circuit of McColl Island. No caribou 
were put up or seen. Some caribou sign was evident and 
browsing found. A very well-worn caribou trail cuts across 
the "isthmus" on the southeast corner of the Island. Since 
the trail leads right to the water's edge on the south it 
is likely the trail used when crossing to and from Patterson 
Island. 

Species noted as browsed by caribou weres 

1. Red osier Dogwood 2. Elderberry 3. Mountain Ash 
4. Mountain Maple ■ 5. Raspberry 

Rain forced us to return to our camp at 3s 00 P.M. 
The rain lessened in late afternoon and Mr. Cumming set out 
a series of snap traps. 



- 10 - 

Sept. 14 - Patterson Island Mr. Cumming left via aircraft 
and Conservation Officer Jim Scott joined me. 

Scott and I proceeded down the second long bay- 
to the west of camp and crossed overland to Horace Cove. 
At 11 we put up but did not see a caribou. This animal was 
quite noisy and snorted a great deal. In sharp contrast to 
the noise of the caribou seen at 5 the snorting of this 
animal was very similar to that of a horse. We might 
speculate that this difference was attributable to a 
difference in sex, the deer-like noise being that of a 
cow, the louder noise that of a bull. Certainly the noise 
from this second animal and its prolonged utterance conveyed 
to us the impression that the animal was most annoyed at 
our disturbing it and the breeding season was close at hand. 

At 12 on Horace Cove the bones of the forelimb 
of a young caribou were found. No further remains were 
located so that no cause of death could be ascertained. 
The bones had not been gnawed upon. 

Thus far in the days travel caribou sign was not 
common and many old trails which had been well-worn appeared 
to be currently used but seldom. 

Between Horace Cove and Silver Lake fresh signs 
of caribou increased and a caribou had walked very recently 
around the northwest end of Silver Lake, 

We returned from Silver Lake to the bay by which 
we had entered and then proceeded by canoe to the campsite 
on McColl Island where a new search revealed no further 
sign of the injured caribou calf. 

During the trip considerable evidence was found 
of birch having been browsed and elderberry had also been 
eaten by the caribou. 

Near Silver Lake there was slight evidence to 
suggest that sphagnum moss had been eaten by caribou and it 
might be significant that this moss was abundant where the 
one was put up at 11. 

Usnea has been common but not abundant wherever 
we have been on Patterson and McColl Island. It certainly 
does not seem sufficiently abundant to be the "staff of life" 
of the caribou and is not always entirely gone from the 
trees even where it is within easy reach and caribou sign 
abundant. This might tend to indicate that this lichen is 
not necessarily as important on caribou range as is at times 
believed. The same remarks apply to foliose lichens. 



- 11 - 



Sept. 15 - Patterson Island Shortly after leaving camp 
we saw a caribou at 15. A good view was had of it and 
judging from the antlers it was either a cow with very 
large antlers (about IS") or a young bull. 

As in most cases, thus far, once the animal was 
put up it moved but a short distance before stopping to look 
back. Probably they rely more on their eyes than their 
noses, at any rate this "second-look" habit seems almost 
mandatory and certainly would work to the caribou* s dis- 
advantage when being hunted. 

Tracks of a young caribou were seen at the west 
end of Veronica Lake. 

Along the south shore of Veronica Lake were found 
some uprooted water-lily rhizomes* There was absolutely 
no sign to indicate that any beaver now inhabit this lake, 
precluding the assignation of this to beavers here as we 
might otherwise do. I know of no other animal on the 
Slates which might have pulled the rhizomes and consider 
this to be tentative confirmation of reports in the litera- 
ture to the effect that caribou will feed on water lilies. 

Another caribou was put up but not seen near the 
east end of Veronica lake 16. 

Near the east side of the Island at 17 we found 
the complete skeleton of a young (re tooth-wear) caribou. 
The antlers had been shed and new growth had not begun. 
This and the state of decomposition indicating that it died 
last winter. Stag-teeth had been present but had fallen 
from the maxillae. These at times occur in female caribou 
but the size of the antler bases suggested that the animal 
was a bull. No evidence that the animal had been shot or 
snared could be found and no sign of knife marks could be 
found to show that the meat had been cut off. No bones 
were broken and none had been gnawed eliminate a severe 
fall or predators as the cause of death. The remains 
contained ample faecal material so that starvation is 
eliminated. Fox scats near the few bones which were sca- 
ttered indicated why the skull and one foreleg were about 
20 v and 40 v respectively from the remainder of the skeleton. 

The skeleton lay on level ground and was in such 
a location that falling and consequent internal injuries 
should not have been the cause of death. 

We can only declare that the cause of death was 
indeterminable and might engage in justifiable speculation 
concerning parasite or scarcity of some essential foods. 



- 12 - 

We proceeded north from 17 for about one-half mile 
and then returned westerly to camp, putting up but not seeing 
a caribou at 1$. 

Many well-used caribou trails and fresh sign were 
evident along all of to-day ? s route. 

Browsing was again noted on Mountain Ash, Mountain 
Maple, Elderberry, Raspberry and White Birch. 

Spruce and ground hemlock, large balsam fir and 
much young balsam is present though no evidence has yet 
been seen that they are utilized at all by the caribou. 
Alder and many herbaceous annuals do not appear to be 
utilized. 

Little or no aspen is present where we have been. 

Foxes and rabbits are scarce. No chipmunks or 
squirrels have been heard or seen. 

I fail to recall seeing a Jackpine on Patterson 
or McColl Islands. 

In the evening we proceeded via canoe to the foot 
of the first long bay west of camp 19. No caribou were 
put up or seen and no tracks were found in the mud at the 
foot of the bay. 

Sept. 16 - Patterson Island Last night there was a severe 
electrical storm accompanied by rain. Today the weather 
is not at all promising though it clears a bit occasionally 
suggesting that the aircraft might be able to come for us, 
as planned. We cannot go far from camp because of this but 
during a short walk Mr, Scott saw a caribou at 20 only five 
minutes out from camp. His description of the animal 9 s 
antlers precludes duplication of 15 and suggested a cow. 

As in nearly every other case the animal, after 
being disturbed, moved away uphill. The animal, before its 
departure, stopped and moved toward Scott after having 
been roused. 

A second venture, later in the day, failed to 
produce more caribou. 

Sept. 17 Returned to Pays Plat and thence to White River 
via aircraft CF-OCU. 



- 13 - 



SLATE ISLANDS 



Routes followed Sept, 12-16, 1955 
(Numbered points correspond with 
those in the text) C.W.D. 



Mortimer Islan 




Delante 
I. 



{( Dupuis 



QSpur I. 

Leadman 
Cape I.car^Z^ I 

Leadman Islands 



Horac 



Horace Pt. 



Sunday Pt 



Patterson 
Island 



Lake 

Superior 



miles 



L- i , L 



- 14 



Summary 



1. Three caribou were seen, we believe that two were cows and 
one may have been a young bull. 

2. Four caribou were put up but not seen. 

3. Two sets of caribou remains were found, in neither case 
was cause of death ascertained. 

4. An injured calf on McColl Island was reported to us. 

5. Forage at the time of our visit was White Birch, Elderberry, 
Mountain Ash, Mountain Maple, Red osier Dogwood, Raspberry. 
Usnea is not present in amounts which I believe would 
support, by itself, many caribou and there is some 
suggestion that it is not always utilized even when avail- 
able. The remarks about Usnea apply also to the foliose 
lichens. Sphagnum may be eaten. Lily pads and rhizomes 
are believed to be sought as forage. In no place where 
browsing was found was it excessive" it was, in fact, 
surprisingly light. 

6. Many old and well-worn trails seem now to be seldom used 
and since the above-mentioned browse plants are distributed 
quite as well in the now unfrequented spots we might well 
speculate that the caribou are not as abundant on the 
Islands as was heretofore the case. 

7. The animals we saw were in good flesh. 

#. Sufficient sign of calves was found to indicate that the 
herd is faring well. 

9. Not one instance was noted of conifers having been browsed 
although many are present including much young balsam and 
ground hemlock. 

J.O. Evidence suggests that the caribou relys upon eyesight 
as much as upon scent to detect one's approach. It's 
habit of moving away only a short distance before stopping 
to look back would work to the caribou's disadvantage 
when being hunted. 

11. Judging from the amount of sign near our camp (which is 
often used by sport-fishermen) , the caribou that were 
seen very close to it and the finding of young caribou 
near the fishermen's cabin on McColl Island it appears 
that the caribou on these Islands at least, are not much 
frightened by the presence of humans. This is in contrast 
to a general belief that the mere presence of humans will 
cause caribou to move out of the country. The fact that 



- 15 - 

the Islands, which are of very limited size, have been 
inhabited intermittently by humans for many years may of 
course, have disrupted what is elsewhere a normal caribou 
behavior pattern. 

12. The reader is asked to bear in mind that the foregoing 
remarks are of a rather preliminary nature based on a 
period of only five days on the site with a partial 
coverage of McColl Island and the north half of 
Patterson Island. 

13. The terrain throughout the Islands is, in general, very 
rugged. This in no way deters the caribou whose trails 
were noted over even the most precipitous terrain. 

Other Wildlife Notes 

A. Mammal s 

Bats - A dead Little Brown Myotis was found in an 
abandoned building at the campsite on Patterson Island. A 
Red Bat was seen in the evening flying over the west end of 
Veronica Lake. 

Carnivores - A short-tailed weasel in summer pelage 
was seen near an old building at the Patterson Island campsite. 
Some otter scats were seen on the shore of Veronica Lake. Fox 
sign was seen, very uncommonly, at various times during our 
visit. 

Rodents - Sign of small rodents was very uncommon 
and the traps set by Mr. Cumming were unsuccessful. The 
failure of the traps may have been due, at least in part, to 
the high wind and rain which occurred during the night that 
they were in use. Some muskrat sign was rioted. Much very 
old beaver cutting was seen. The only sign of present occurrence 
of beaver on Patterson Island was very fresh alder cutting at 
(13). Trembling aspen is very scarce. 

Lagomorphs - Almost no sign of the Varying Hare was 
found by us. 

General Remarks re Mammals - The furbearer population 
on the Islands seems very limited. The beaver potential is not 
great but the population could be much larger than at present. 
Small rodents do not seem abundant, the rabbits are at low ebb. 
The fox population is low. The general belief is that no large 
predators occur on the Slates and we found no evidence to 
contradict this. 

B. Birds 

Waterfowl - Black Ducks, American Mergansers, 
Common Golden-eyes and two Canada Geese were seen. One 
Holboell's Grebe was noted. 



- 16 - 



Birds of Prey - A bald eagle was noted several 
times near McColl Island and the neighboring point of 
Patterson Island. Sharp-shinned Hawks were common. One 
Broad-winged Hawk was recorded. 

Upland Game Birds - Absolutely no sign, new or old 
was seen of Ruffed or Spruce Grouse on Patterson or McColl 
Island. 

Passerines - Thrushes of several varieties 
(Hermit, Olive-backed (?) and Gray-cheeked (?) were abundant. 
Several small warblers were common (Myrtle and Magnolia) 
as well as an unidentified vireo. Blackbirds were common. 

Waders - Great Blue Herons were seen on several 
occasions. An unidentified sandpiper was seen once. 

Note — The foregoing remarks on avifauna represent 
only casual observations. Time did not permit an extensive 
study. 



Conclusions 

The woodland caribou could be classed as "common" 
wherever we were on McColl and Patterson Islands. There 
is strong evidence that they were formerly more abundant 
there. No sign of excessive browsing was found. Sign of 
several calves was found. The animals seen were in good 
flesh. The caribou are faring well. 

Assuming no duplication of caribou seen or put 
up by us and a similar distribution of animals throughout 
the areas not investigated the population of caribou on the 
Islands might be about 35 animals. This figure, while not 
well qualified, would agree favorably with my January 
1954 estimate of "less than 25", which was based on two 
flights over the Islands with Messrs. Cumming, Perrie, and 
Reynolds and would indicate good breeding success. 

Recommendations 

The use of a helicopter during the mid-winter 
months so that the Islands might be surveyed exhaustively 
with every caribou track mapped and followed to its 
originator would be, in my opinion, the only practical way 
in which the matter of numbers of caribou resident there 
might be determined with real assurance. Until this is 
done browse studies on the Islands will not be as valuable 
as is uniquely possible there since the data arc not now 
relatable to population level. The area is too small to 
employ a sampling technique to determine caribou numbers. 



- 17 - 



I understand that these Islands were purchased by 
a private company some years ago. Currently they are not 
in use. In order to protect the caribou from probable 
future development of this range which is ideally suited 
to research work on the species I believe that we should 
exert every effort to regain full ownership of the group 
of Islands, and elevate them to the status of Game Preserve 
to assist the regulations relevant to the protection of the 
caribou in this study area. 



- IS - 

KENORA REPORT ON HELICOPTER SURVEY OF MOOSE 

ON BIG ISLAND, 1955. 

by 
R. Simkoe 



Purpose 

To gather additional information on moose population 
and adult sex ratios of the island to add to previous surveys 
conducted by R. C. Passmore, 

Account of Flight and Observations 

October 25th - First Flight. Observer - R. Simkoe 

Commenced flying time 07s40 and proceeded to East end 
of the Island, flight line 1. 

Flight Line Observations 

1 3 deer 

2 nil 

3 nil 

4 cow standing in water 

5 cow and twin calves in clearing, 3 deer 

6 2 cows and one calf, 2 deer 

7 2 bulls, 2 cows and 1 calf, 2 deer 

8 cow and bull, 3 deer 

9 6 bulls (first had one huge antler) 

10 bull 

11 2 bulls, 2 cows, 1 calf (last 2 bedded in open 

muskeg) 

12 3 deer 

TOTAL 26 moose, 16 deer 

Weather s 

Slight haze, overcast. 

Winds - S. W. at approximately 6 miles per hour. 

Temperature - mildc 

Total flight lines - 60 miles. 

Air speed - 30 - 40 miles per hour. 

Altitude - 300 ft. 

Flying time - 07°. 40 - 09s 40. 

All moose seen with the exception of two were standing 
and were not alarmed when we circled the area. 

At 09s20 a cow and a bull were bedded down in an open 
muskeg as indicated at the end of flight line No. 11. 

On no occasion were any cows closely accompanied by bull 
moose. 



- 19 - 

On flight line No. 9? four bulls were grouped closely 
together, three of which were browsing off the same tree and the 
fourth was approximately 100 feet away. 

Oct. 25th - Second Flight. Observer J. Macfie 

Commenced flying time 15 2 30 same lines. The first four 
lines at the east end were flown. At the end of these four lines 
the flight was discontinued due to bright sunshine casting shadows 
and reflections off tree branches. The flight was discontinued 
at 16s 00 hours. 

Oct. 26th - Third Flight. Observer J. Macfie 

Commenced flying time 09 l 20 at east end of Island. 
Early morning sun too low over the tree tops and it was decided to 
wait until the sun got up higher. 



Flight Line 

1 
2 
3 



k 
5 
6 

7 

a 

9 

10 
11 
12 

TOTAL 
Weathers 



Observations 



nil 

1 deer 

2 bulls (one probably lj years old, the other 
somewhat older) , 1 cow, the first bull bedded down 
in jackpine, the other seen during circling by 
sunlight reflection cast off the antlers. 

1 deer 

1 bull, standing in the open 

nil 

1 cow, standing at edge of muskeg, 1 calf 

1 bull, standing in deep bush 

1 bull, walking in beaver pond 

nil 

5 deer in muskeg 

nil 



8 moose, 7 deer 



Bright sun. 

Winds - South at 20 miles per hour. 

Temperature - moderate cold. 

Total flight lines - 60 miles. 

Air speed - 35 - 55 miles per hour. 

Altitude - 300 ft. 

Flying time - 09s20 - 11 2 05 . 

The visibility in moderate and heavy timber was poor due 
to bright sunlight reflecting off tree tops and conditions did 
not improve noticeably by lls05. 

Most of the moose seen were in the open and seen by pure 
chance in breaks in the heavy timber. 



- 20 - 



Flight 


Line 


1 - 

7 
8 

9 

10 - 


6 
12 


TOTAL 




Weather: 



Effective width of strips over most of the west half 
of the island was less than one hundred feet on either side of the 
helicopter and quite probably some moose within this range were 
not seen. It would appear that, unless there is snow on the 
ground, cloudy weather is better than sunny weather. The 20 mile 
per hour south wind resulted in speed of 55 miles per hour on the 
north flights and about 35 miles per hour on the south flights. 

Oct. 27th and 2Sth - helicopter unserviceable. 

Oct. 29th - Fourth Flight. Observer R. Simkoe 

The helicopter parts were flown in from Kenora and the 
flight commenced at 12s 45 hours. The flight line was shifted J 
mile west. 

Observations 

nil 

1 bull in open hardwoods 

nil 

3 bulls, 1 cow and 1 calf in open hardwoods. 

nil 

6 moose 



Dirty, cold and cloudy day. 

Winds - North, north-west at 20 miles per hour, gusts up to 

35 miles per hour. 

Temperature - freezing. 

Total flight lines - 62 miles. 

Air speed - 30 - 65 miles per hour. 

Altitude - 300 ft. 

Flying time - 12s45 - 02sl5. 

Poorest day for observation, possibly due to cold winds, but 
excellent for visibility. The first observation was on flight 
seven when a bull was standing in a small opening in the hardwoods, 

On flight nine we spotted a number of dead trees lying down 
and trampled, in circling the area we then spotted three bull moose 
at the edge of the clearing. On the next turn we then spotted a 
cow and a calf on the opposite side of the clearing. On another 
circle we noticed that two of the younger bulls were sparring and 
the other with the huge antler along with the cow and calf seemed 
to be watching the ordeal. 

There were no deer observations in this survey. 

The flight lines were originally planned one quarter of a 
mile apart. However, we learned from Pilot Gillies that they were 
near the end of their contract hours on the helicopter and that 
we should plan our survey accordingly. Therefore, we planned to 
fly four hours each day and cover the island twice the first day, 



- 21 - 

subsequently the first day's flight lines were changed to one 
mile apart. It was planned as each day progressed that flight 
lines would be reduced until we found the best areas of moose 
concentrations and then our flight lines would be one quarter of 
a mile apart in these areas for more intensive observations. 

However, as previously mentioned, weather and helicopter 
break down prevented a more intensive survey and the helicopter 
had to be released at the end of the week as planned. 

Summary and C onclusions % 

I. In three complete surveys we covered ISO miles consisting 
of six hours flying time. During this time a total of 
thirty moose and twenty-three deer were seen. Narrower 
strips could have accounted for more animals seen. 

II. Narrower strips at a 300 ft. altitude would be extremely 
difficult, unless they were flown by compass course as no 
tie-ins at the end of each flight line could be located at 
such a low altitude. 

III. More time should be allotted for experimental flights in 
locating a suitable altitude that would give good ground 
observation as well as accurate flight lines in narrower 
strips. 

IV. In circling moose seen, we frequently found other moose in 
the same area close by. In one such case, the glint from 
a moose antler drew our attention and a circle of the area 
showed three other moose within 100 ft. of the first 
observation and in line with our intended flight. 

V. J. Macfie and the writer both feel that the use of a heli- 
copter for this work is far superior to that of a 
conventional aircraft and that cloudy days in the fall were 
best for observations. Snow on the ground would greatly 
improve aerial censusing. 

VI. A bright sun in the early morning is too low in the horizon 
especially at a 300 ft, altitude and consequently casts 
deep shadows on the ground. Later in the morning the 
sunlight is reflected off the branches of trees, especially 
that of hardwoods. The latter also applies to late afternoon 
flights. 

VII. Helicopter noise does not seem to have any startling effect 
on moose, although the deer were easily disturbed. 



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~ 23 - 

MOOSE SEASON REPORT FOR GERALDTON DISTRICT, 1955 

by 

H • G • Cumraing 



This report on the 1955 Moose Hunting Season in the 
Geraldton District has been drawn up in accordance with Fish and 
Wildlife Circular #276. The report is organized under the headings 
listed in the circular. 

(a) Number of Resident Licences sold in the District 717 
This is an increase of 32 over last year T s sales. 

(b) Number of Non-Resident Licences sold in District 73 
Since last year's sales were only 39? this is an increase 

of $7$. 



(c) Number of Resident Hunters who returned? 

la Questionnaire s 432 

This figure includes 6 returns sent to other 
Districts, but does not include 116 received from other 
Districts. The percentage of returns received is 60%. 

2. Moose Jaws 113 

This figure does not include one jaw from a moose 
which was shot in another District and turned in here. 

3. Reproductive Tracts of Females 8 

This is the same as last year. Until we have some 
way of describing more accurately what we want in terms the 
hunters can understand, we cannot hope for very much of an 
increase in the number of reproductive tracts received. 

(d) Number of Non-Resident Hunters who returned; 

1. Questionnaires 29 

This figure includes one return sent to another 
District, but does not include three returns received from 
other Districts. The percentage return is very poor, being 
only 40%. We were handicapped this year in obtaining both 
resident and non-resident returns by a slip in the District 
office whereby in many cases only the city of residence was 
inserted on the licence backs rather than the full Post 
Office address. The result was that there were no means to 
send letters requesting the questionnaires. This will be 
corrected next year. 

2. Moose Jaws 4 

3. Reproductive Tracts of Females . 2 



- 24 - 

(e) Reported kill by resident hunters? 

1. Number of hunters reporting 542 

2. Number who killed bulls 122 

3. Number who killed cows 91 

4. Number who killed calves 33 

This figure may include some yearlings, as some of 
the yearling jaws sent in were listed as calves on the 
returns, 

5* Number who killed moose unspecified 

6. Percent success 45% 

7. Estimated total kill by Resident Hunter s 275 

Graph No. 1, taken from Table No. 1, presents the 
number of returns which came in each week and the percentage 
success shown by the questionnaires received each week. 
From this graph it appears that a safe success figure for 
the hunters who have not reported would be about 10%, 
Since 291 have not reported, this means a total of 29 moose 
should be added to those listed above. Thus, we arrive at 
a total of 275 moose. 

(f) Reported kill by Non-Resident Hunters; 

1. Number of hunters reporting 31 

2. Number who killed bulla 15 

3. Number who killed cows 8 

4. Number who killed calves 1 

5. Number who killed moose unspecified 1 

6. Percent success 

7. Estimated total kill by Non-Residents 46 

Number of hunters not reporting is 43 • Since we 
have not enough figures to make a graph as for the resident 
hunters, a success figure of 50% was assumed for the remain- 
ing hunters. Thus, 21 moose should be added for a total of 
46 moose. Total moose estimated to have been shot in the 
District. 321 

(g) The age composition of the moose herd is recorded in 
Table No. 4. 

Total jaws received 117 

Total jaws received for adult moose 101 

Ratio of Calves to 2j or older cows is 16 calves per 29 
adult cows, or 55 calves per 100 cows. 
Ratio of yearlings to 3| or older cows 
27 yearlings per 21 (3| or older) cows 
129 yearlings per 100 (3 J or older) cows. 

(h) A temporal distribution of the kill for each schedule in 
the regulations ; 

Schedule la - #1 moose killed by residents 
Schedule 6a - 73 moose killed by residents 
Schedule lb and 6b - Si killed by residents 

The time relationships are further set forth in 



- 25 - 

Table No. 2 and 3? and in graph No. 2. In the tables moose killed 
on October 15th were divided into those killed in schedule la and 
those in 6a. These overlap for that one day. The typical high 
kill at the start of a season is evident on the graph for Schedule 
la and 6a, but it does not hold for lb and 6b. The only explanation 
that seems likely is that bad weather kept hunters from hunting 
during the early part of the late season. The highest number of 
cows and calves was shot during Schedule 6a. 

(i) Remarks i 

!• General success of the hunt 

If our percent success figures mean anything, the hunt 
was very successful. Observations in the field serve to bear this 
out. We heard of several instances of hunters having phenomenal 
luck, balanced by a few who did not. Except for the early part of 
the last season, the weather was not unfavourable, and the overall 
impression received by Department officers was that the hunt was 
good. 

2. Dispersal of hunting pressure 

The hunters were spread around a little more this year 
due to the opening of some new roads in the District (Map No. 1). 
It is still far from what could be desired, but it is our belief 
that the situation will continue to improve as road building goes 
forward throughout the District. It should be noted that Pulp 
Company roads play an important part in providing access for the 
hunters. If they should ever be closed to hunters, the situation 
would become very difficult, indeed. 

The location of the non-resident kills, as seen on Map 
No. 1, indicate that those who have already spent so much on their 
moose hunt are more willing to go on difficult and costly canoe 
trips for good hunting, than are the residents. Many residents 
know beforehand where moose are staying, and go out and shoot them 
the first day of the season,, 

3 . Availability of Guides 

Although, to our knowledge, all hunters eventually located 
guides, they had difficulty in some cases. Most of the men who 
acted as guides were not professional guides, but were trappers or 
local residents who bought a guide licence for the moose season only. 
Since the percentage increase of Non-resident Hunters in the 
District was 87%, as mentioned before, there was some evidence of 
an increased demand which was out of balance with the available 
supply. This was not only the case with guides, but also with out- 
fitters, many of whom were catering to hunters for the first or 
second time. We believe that the early announcement of seasons 
this year was an important factor in bringing about the increase. 
With similar announcements in the future and regular and dependable 
moose seasons, a supply of guides and outfitters should soon become 
available as they recognize the potential of this source of earning. 



- 26 - 

4. Yields of moose for any given area . 

We have no areas at present with definite enough boundaries 
to allow getting figures of this kind. 

5. Hunter days per moose as shown on the resident questionnaires 
were 2029/246 or 3.2 days. 

6. Average days hunting per resident hunter was 2029/542 or 
3.7 days, 

7. Sex Ratios and ratios of calves to cows . 

Since these ratios were arrived at in several different 
ways, they are summarized in Table No. 5. The sex ratio of bulls to 
cows varies considerably, but all agree that the bulls are more 
abundant. Probably the reason some of the figures for bulls are 
so high is hunter preference. The figures for those "seen" might 
be more accurate. The ratios of calves to cows is amazingly constant. 
The figure obtained from the jaws for this table includes l| year 
old cows in order to make it comparable to the others, as hunters 
would not be able to distinguish 1^ from the older cows in the 
field. 

&. Additional comments on Graph No. 1 

A post-season peak in the number or returns received is 
evident for both the early and late seasons. The peak following 
the late season was augmented by a notice which was run in the local 
newspaper on December 29th and January 5th. Letters were sent to 
all hunters beginning on January 12th and continuing for the 
following week. The results are indicated by the high peak building 
up to January 28th. 

The cause of the early dip in the percent success is 
unknown. It may be explained by the fact that it corresponds with 
the early increase in the number of returns received. Likewise, 
the cause of the small increase in percent success at the last is 
unknown. The "total numbers" graph is for resident hunters only, 
but the "success" graph includes non-residents. 

9. Recommendations for next year ? s seasons . 

General satisfaction with this year 9 s seasons has been 
noticed throughout the District. It is not felt by Department 
officers that the kill was too high nor that an undue number of 
cows and calves were killed. The only problems seem to be those 
of meat spoilage in the early season and of poor hunting weather 
during the last season. Schedule lb and 6b might be moved ahead 
to November 15th and December 15th, if it fitted in with other 
Districts but this is not important. It is thought that another 
season like this year will be well received. 

10. Recommendations for improving moose hunter questionnaires . 

1. Questionnaire should be post-card size. The present large 
piece of paper questionnaire is not only easily lost by hunters, but 
provides quite a problem in the District offices. If post-card 
sized questionnaires were used it would eliminate the present situa- 
tion whereby the office is piled high with stacks of paper. 



- 27 - 

2. The card-sized return should either be attached to the 
hunting licence by a perforated edge or printed on the back of it. 
Since most of the hunters retain the licence, this would ensure 
them keeping the return. 

3 . The card should be self-addressed except for a District 
office stamp to be put on by the District. If it is legally and 
financially possible to have card self-stamped it sould be that 
much easier for a hunter to return it. 

4. The licence number should be stamped on the return the 
same as on the licence. Even if the smaller return is not adopted 
a place for filling in the licence number should be inserted on the 
return as this would save untold labour in sorting out the hunters 
which have reported, from those who have not. 

5. The wording of the present return is a great improvement 
over the previous one. There was very little confusion this year, 
a fact that contrasted strongly with the year before. 

6. In order to assist in sorting the returns it might be 
possible to include on the edges an I.B.M. type index, much as on 
the age record cards. Returns coming into the office could then 
be punched as being successful or not successful, and also for the 
kind of animal shot. 

7. If the information on rifles included on the age record 
cards shows any indication of being useful, it might be well to 
include that on the licence returns. 

11. Recommendations regarding age record cards . 

(Requested by letter January 4> 1955 » G 15-Moose-55) . 
The age record cards seemed to work out very well. Since 
a large number of the hunters in this District hunt only on week-ends, 
it is felt that the only way to get moose ages is to continue to 
request that jaws be sent in. Perhaps for this reason we found 
that the "number of hunters" column was not very useful. Unless 
different conditions make it useful in other Districts, it could 
be dispensed with and the card made out for one hunter only, as it 
is for one moose only. The "licence number" block could be enlarged 
slightly, to allow writing in names when that is all we have. 

One complaint is that we fefel a considerable number of 
moose shot in our District must be aged in other Districts. If 
all Districts were instructed to send the cards to the District 
in which the moose was shot, they could be included in that District's 
report and later forwarded to Maple, 



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4 26 

November 



10 17 24 Date 
December Unknown 



Temporal Distribution of Moose Killed by Resident 
Hunters in the Geraldton District, 1955, 



- 30 - 



MAP NO. 1 



GERALDTON DISTRICT 




20 10 

1 \—-4 \—i 



Plan Showing - 
Location of 
Moose Kills 
and Areas of 
Heaviest 
Hunting, 1955. 



x Resident 
(x) Non-Resident 



20 

T= 



40 



- 31 - 



TABLE NO. 1 - Temporal Distribution of Questionnaire Receipts 

No. Returns Rec*d 
Week Res. Non-Res. Bulls 



Moose Reported Shot 
Cows M. Calv. F. Calv. 



Oct. 


1-15 




Oct. 


16-22 




Oct. 


23-29 




Oct. 


30-Nov. 


4 


Nov. 


5-H 




Nov. 


12-18 




Nov. 


19-26 




Nov. 


27-Dec. 


3 


Dec. 


4-10 




Dec. 


11-17 




Dec. 


13-24 




Dec. 


25-31 




Jan. 


1- 7 




Jan. 


3-14 




Jan. 


15-21 




Jan. 


22-28 




Jan. 


30-Feb. 


3 



100$ 
100$ 



11 

14 

19 

7 

1 

3 

3 

2 

2 

9 

7 

24 

60 

42$ 26 
24$ 72 
14$ HO 
16$ 56 



100$ 
100$ 
100$ 
100$ 
100$ 
100$ 
100$ 



63 



6 
3 
4 
1 



1 
1 



1 
4 
5 



9 
9 
6 
1 

3 

1 
1 
3 
5 
2 
11 

23 

3 

10 

5 



5 
7 
9 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 

3 
3 

5 
12 

1 
6 
3 
6 



1 
4 



1 
1 
1 



2 
1 
3 
1 



1 
1 



2 
2 



TOTAL 



426 



23 



TABLE NO. 2 - Summary of Non-Resident Returns 













K i 1 


1 


e d 






S e 


e n 
















Unspe- 










1 


Week 




6 


9 


6 Calv. 


2 


Calv 


cified 


Days 


c? 


9 


Calves 


Oct. 


1- 3 




3 


7 










62 


17 


14 


3 


Oct. 


9-15 




3 










1 


1 




1 




Oct. 


15-16-22 


2 








1 




12 


3 


4 


5 


Oct. 


23-29 




1 












6 




1 


1 


Oct. 


30-Nov. 


4 






















Nov. 


5-11 
























Nov. 


12-13 
























Nov. 


19-26 
























Nov. 


27-Dec. 


3 






















Dec. 


4-10 
























Dec. 


11-17 
























Dec. 


13-24 
























No d, 


ate 
rALS 




1 












45 


5 


4 


2 


TO' 


14 


3 






1 


1 


126 


25 


24 


11 



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Bulls 

Cows 

Calves 



- 34 - 
SUPPLEMENT 1955 MOOSE SEASON REPORT - GERALDTON DISTRICT 



The following supplement to the 1955 Moose Season in the 
Geraldton District covers Hunter Returns received since the Annual 
Report was sent in on February 7th. , 1956. 

Additional Non-Residents reporting 3 

Of these, one killed a bull, and one a male calf 

Additional Resident Hunters who returned 
questionnaires 120 

Of these, 62 came from Geraldton District, and 53 came from 
other Districts. Three questionnaires from hunters who 
hunted in other Districts are included in the Geraldton 
District Returns. 

Reported kill by Resident Hunters i 

Number of hunters reporting 117 

Number who killed bulls 12 

Number who killed cows 4 

Number who killed calves 3 

Total additional kill reported 19 

Percent success 16,2% 

When the original report was sent in, it was estimated by 
means of a graph that the percent success of the hunters as yet 
unreported would be 10$. The actual figure is somewaht higher. 
It is possible that the hunters still not reported would reduce 
this figure. 

A breakdown of the figures shows that it was returns 
received from outside the Geraldton District which changed the 
percent success from that predicted. Using only returns from this 
District the following figures are obtained! 

Number of hunters reporting 59 

Number of moose killed 6 

Percent success 10.20$ 

Percent of hunters who bought licences in this 
District who sent in Returns (494/717). 

This completes the 1955 Moose Season Report. 



35 - 



MOOSE SEASON REPORT - NORTH BAY DISTRICT, 1955. 

by 
C. 0. Bartlett 



(a) 
(b) 
(c) 



(e) 



of Resident Licences sold in District 

of Non-Resident Licences sold in District* 

of Resident Hunters who returned? 

1. Questionnaires 

2. Moose Jaws 
Resident hunters % 
No. of hunters reporting 
No, who killed bulls 
Percent success 
Estimated total kill bys 

1. Residents 

2. Indians on Reservations 

3. Illegal cow kill 



No. 
No. 
No. 



Reported kill by 
1. 
2o 
6. 
7. 



273 
5 

261 

30 

222 
52 

25oO** 

52 
6 
1 



Total 



59 



5€ No non-resident hunting in North Bay District 
Hunted in other districts 

xx Fifteen licence buyers did not hunt 
This figure is for 207 hunters 



(g) Age Composition 



Age Class 


Ages Represent 


3d 


Number 


of Male Moose 


I 




i 
% 






3 

4 


II 








5 


III 








5 


IV 








2 


V 




54 - 6$ 

8§ -10| 
lol -154 






4 


VI 








2 


VII 








2 


VIII 








1 


IX 




14i4 






1 


X 




20- 






1 



Total 

(h) Temporal Distribution of the Kill; 

Dates 

November 



29 



December 



26 27 28 29 30 1 

No. of Animals Killed 
5 5 3 5 4 5 



First 
Week 



29 
61.7% 



3456789 10 



7 



5 2 



Second 
Week 



IB 
38.3% 



- 36 - 

(i) 1. Hunter Success 

The number of licences sold was down slightly, 29 less 
than last year and the reported number of moose killed was slightly 
less, 51 compared to 60 killed during the 1954 hunting season. 
However, the success of hunters was very much the same for both 
years with 24.5 percent and 21,3 percent hunter success for the 
1955 and 1954 hunting seasons. There was from three to seven 
inches of snow on the ground during the first week of the season 
and from seven to thirteen inches during the second week. The 
freeze-up was somewhat earlier this year than last year and in 
conjunction with the early heavy snowfall prevented a number of 
hunters from hunting in the more remote areas. 

2. Dispersal of Hunting Pressure 

The attached maps show the distribution of the hunting 
pressure and the moose kill in the North Bay district during the 
1955 season. It is apparent that many good moose areas in the 
district are not being hunted to any extent and the hunters tend 
to concentrate in a very few of the easily accessible townships. 
Many townships northwest of Lake Temagami, which our surveys 
show to have fair to good moose densities, were hunted very little 
or not at all. Map 3 shows that, with very few exceptions, the 
kill of moose was concentrated in the same areas as last year or 
in the townships immediately adjacent to these areas. 

3 , Annual Increment to the Moose Herd 

The ratio of yearling bulls to adult bulls in the kill 
can be used as an indication of the average annual increment or 
increase in the moose population. 

Table 1 shows the ratio of yearling bulls to adult bulls 
in the 1954 and the 1955 kill. Although the samples are small 
they suggest that the annual increment to the moose population 
in the North Bay district averaged around 15 percent for the last 
two years. This compares favourably with Petersons (1950 North 
American Moose) average figures of 15, 16 and 17 percent found for 
moose in other areas. 

TABLE I - Ratio of Yearling Bulls to Adult Bulls in the Hunter 

Kill of Moose in the North Bay District During the 1954 
and 1955 Seasons. 

1954 1955 Total 

Number of Yearlings 2 4 6 

Number of Adults 19 22 41 

Increment (percent) 10.5 13*2 14.6 



■ 



.:. ... .. . 



- 37 - 

Comments and Suggestions 

It is apparent from the returns made by hunters during 
1954 and 1955 seasons that there are many townships in the district 
with fair moose populations that are not being hunted to any 
extent. The pattern of distribution of hunting pressure for both 
years indicates that the most accessible areas or areas adjacent 
to highways were hunted the heaviest. The result of this concen- 
tration of hunting pressure and kill of bull moose only is reflected 
in the sex ratios of the moose population obtained from the hunters' 
returns. Cows outnumbered bulls almost 2 to 1 in the sample of 
254 moose observed, which showed Bulls, Cows and Calves in the 
proportion 71 s 139 : 44- 

It is our feeling that a somewhat earlier season in 
November would allow hunters to get into some of these remote 
areas before freeze-up and obtain a much better distribution of 
moose hunters and the moose kill. 

Also, considering the small number of resident licences 
sold in the district and the moose population of 1,000 or more 
animals, shooting of cows and bulls for one year by residents 
only would help to obtain a more balanced sex ratio and, on the 
basis of the last two years' experience, would do no more than 
harvest the annual surplus or increment of an estimated 150 animals* 

A short any-sex season by resident hunters only has been 
suggested by a number of hunters on their moose return forms and 
Conservation Officers at the recent district meeting voted 
unanimously in favour of such a season. 



- y 



NORTH BAY DISTRICT 




Crown Game 
Preserve 



Map 

5+ 
E3 4 

qui 3 

E3 i 



I Plan Showing - Distribution of Moose Kill in the 

North Bay District During the 1955 
Season. 



Moose Per Township 
Moose Per Township 
Moose Per Township 
Moose Per Township 
Moose Per Township 



Major Highways 



i Railroads 



%=* 



10 



Miles 

-9 ^ 



L& 



- 39 - 
NORTH BAY DISTRICT 




rown Game 
Preserve 



Map II Plan Showing - 

HB 41+ Hunter Days 
1221 31-40 Hunter Days 
firm 21-30 Hunter Days 
g=L 11-20 Hunter Days 
£53 1-10 Hunter Days 



Distribution of Hunting Pressure 
in the North Bay District During 
t he 1955 Mo o s e Sea son. 



~ Major Highways 

t int Railroads 



M i 1 e s 



20 



10 



i -~4 - 



20 
=3e 



4p 



- 40 - 



NORTH BAY DISTRICT 




Map III Plan Showing - Distribution of the Moose Kill 

in the North Bay District 



During the 19 55 Season 



r— -i Townships Where Moose Were 
"^ Killed in 1954 and 1955 



Townships Where Moose Were 
Killed in 1955 and Not in 
1954 



■■ Major Highways 
I i i i Railroads 



M i 1 e s 



2 10 



20 



40 



- 41 - 
MOOSE SEASON REPORT, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 1955 

by 

J. A. Macfie 

Note s This report concerns all of the Sioux Lookout district, and 
that part of Kenora district lying north of the trans- 
continental line of the C.N.R,, 



(a) No. Resident licences sold in district 39$ 

(b) No. Non-resident licences sold in district 258 

(c) No. Resident hunters (licences purchased in Sioux 
Lookout district) who returned? 

1. questionnaires 318 

2. moose jaws 32 

3. reproductive tracts 3 

Note s An additional 2 tracts were received from Kenora 
licenced hunters who shot their moose in Kenora 
district. 

(d) No. of Non-resident hunters (licence purchased in 
Sioux Lookout district) who returned? 

1. questionnaires 231 

2. moose jaws 24 

3. reproductive tracts 8 

Note ; An additional 2 tracts and 2 jaws were received from 
Kenora licenced hunters who hunted in Sioux 
Lookout district. A total of 15 reproductive 
tracts were sent to Maple by this district. 

It will be noted that the report to this point deals 
only with Sioux Lookout sold licences. The remainder of the report 
includes all those who hunted in Sioux Lookout district, regardless 
of where they purchased licences. In sections (e) and (f) below, 
Sioux Lookout licenced hunters and those who purchased licences in 
other districts are dealt with separately, under sub-headings (A) 
and ( B ) . 

(e) (A) Reported kill by Sioux Lookout licenced resident hunters? 

1. No. hunters reporting 318 
less number who did not hunt or hunted in other 
districts. 29 

2^9 

2. No. who killed bulls 86 

3. No. who killed cows 56 

4. No. who killed calves 24 

5. No. who killed moose unspecified 2 

6. Per cent success 57.7$ 

7. Estimated total kill 180 






- 42 - 

(B) Reported kill by resident hunters who purchased licences 
in other districts (KE, FF, PA, GE, Kap.). 

1. No. hunters reporting S9 

2. No. who killed bulls 20 

3. No. who killed cows 22 

4. No. who killed calves 10 

5. No. who killed moose unspecified 

6. Per cent success 5$. 4% 

7. Estimated total kill 70 

It is estimated that 150 residents from other districts, 
mainly Kenora and Fort Frances, hunted in the area covered by this 
report. At the time of writing no solicited returns from Fort 
Frances were available, so an only slightly below average success 
rate was employed to estimate the total kill by Fort Frances hunters. 
Kenora resident returns were about 60%, so a low success rate was 
applied for them. The overall factor used for estimating the success 
of out of district resident hunters who did not file returns was 
30%. 

(f) (A) Reported kill by Sioux Lookout licenced Non-resident hunters. 

1. No. of hunters reporting 231 
less those who did not hunt or hunted other 
districts 4 

227 

2. No. who killed bulls 91 

3. No. who killed cows 50 

4. No. who killed calves 13 

5. No. who killed moose unspecified 

6. Per cent success 70.0% 

7. Estimated total kill 173 

Because most missing returns were those of hunters who 
could not be solicited due to the lack of sufficient addresses, a 
high success rate of 50% is assumed for them. 

(B) Reported kill by Non-resident hunters who purchased licences 
in other districtss 

1. No. of hunters reporting 222 

2. No. who killed bulls 109 

3. No. who killed cows 39 

4. No. who killed calves 5 

5. No. who killed moose unspecified 

6. Percent success 6$. 9% 

7. Estimated total kill 17£ 

An estimated 285 non-residents, who purchased licences 
in Kenora and Fort Frances, hunted in this area. Slightly more 
than #0% of Kenora non-residents made returns, and it is assumed 
that the remainder were mostly unsuccessful hunters. Of 19 hunters 
who purchased licences at Fort Frances, 6 made voluntary returns. 



- 43 - 



The rest were not solicited, so an average success rate is attributed 
to the estimated nine who hunted in this area but did not file 
returns. An overall success rate of 35% was used for non-residents 
who purchased licences in Fort Frances and Kenora, and hunted in 
the area covered by this report, but did not make returns. 

(g) Ages and Sexes of Moose - Season of 1955* Sioux Lookout District. 
A £ e 



It 

g|-ioj 

104-154 

154- 

TOTAL 



Notes 



Males 


Sex Undetermined 


Females 


Total 


9 


1 


6 


16 


27 





12 


39 


15 





7 


22 


8 





5 


13 


19 


1 


9 


29 


8 


1 


2 


11 


7 





2 


9 


2 





1 


3 


2 





2 


4 


1 








1 


93 


3 


46 


147 



All moose included in the above age composition table were 
aged by Department Officers, either in the field or from 
jaws submitted by hunters. In order that results would 
not be biased in favor of calves, calf moose which were 
identifiable only by their size were recorded as age 
unknown. 

(h) Temporal distribution of kill (Known kill only) 







Bull 


Cow 


<S Calf 


2 Calf 


Calf 
Unsexed 


Sex & Age 
Unknown 


Schedule 1 
Oct. 1-15 


N.R. 
Res. 

Res. 
Res. 


199 
27 

226 

17 

8 


89 
23 

112 
o 

7 

2 


16 
11 

27 
2 
2 


7 
4 

11 
2 




1 




Nov. 26-Dec. 24 
Seasonnot known 




1 
1 


1 


Schedule 2 
Oct, 15-31 
Nov. 26-Dec. 24 
Season not known 


Res. 
Res. 
Res. 


14 
22 

3 


11 

24 

4 


7 
3 


3 

1 








Schedule 3 
Oct. 15-31 

Nov. 26-Dec. 24 


N.R. 
Res. 
Res. 


1 
7 
2 


1 












Schedule 4 



















Oct. 1-31 Res. 3 
Nov. 1-30 Res. 3 
Schedule and season unknown 



TOTALS 



306 163 



41 



17 



1 



- 44 - 

Grand Total Known Moose Kill - 530 

(i) 1» General success of the hunt . 

Moose hunting in this area in 1955 was excellent. There 
were more hunters in the bush than there were last year, and hunter 
success ran higher. However, altered zones and the legalizing of 
cows and calves for non-residents renders direct comparison of 
little value. 

In the case of non-resident hunters, success figures may 
not be as useful as they appear on the surface. It is common 
practice, for instance, for a party of 5 hunters to purchase two 
moose licences and three deer licences. They then all hunt deer 
and moose, and if success warrants it, they purchase more moose 
licences. This means that more people are hunting moose than moose 
licence sales indicate, resulting in an exaggerated rate of success. 
This system is also practised, probably to a lesser extent, by 
residents. 

Very few hunters failed to see a moose, and only rarely 
did a hunter report that he found moose to be scarcer than during 
an earlier hunt,, On the contrary, many hunters and camp operators 
expressed the opinion that there were more moose than last year. 

During October, weather was generally favorable to hunting, 
except that travel on large lakes was restricted at times by high 
winds. Hunters were greatly handicapped by deep snow in November 
and December, and the resident kill undoubtedly was smaller than it 
might have been. Even so, the success of resident hunters must be 
considered to have been very good. 

2 . Dispersal of hunting pressure, and yields of moose . 

Zoning in 1955 was designed to take pressure off the 
heavily hunted Red Lake Highway area south of Ear Falls, by forcing 
non-resident hunters to go to less accessible areas. This directed 
increased pressure on central Lac Seul, which area provided an 
estimated $3 moose for 110 hunters. Considering that half of this 
area is water, it absorbed a lot of hunters, and produced a pheno- 
menal number of moose. 

Closing of the most accessible part of the district to 
non-residents did not greatly increase the number of fly-ins 9 to 
remote areas. Northern Lac Seul band area had a few more hunters, 
and the increased pressure in Islington, Grassy Narrows and the 
area east of Lac Seul was partly due to closure of the southern 
half of the Red Lake Highway. However, most preferred to crowd 
into what easily accessible areas were open to them. Actually, the 
non-resident hunters go where the camp operators take them, and few 
of these want, or can afford, to use air transport. 

In the "danger zones" of last year (western Lac Seul, 
southern Red Lake Highway, etcetera) increased numbers of resident 
hunters more than filled the void left by the exclusion of non- 
residents. There were more hunters, and they killed more moose. 



- 45 - 

In the western part of the district, Islington and Grassy 
Narrows had substantially more hunters than last year, and success 
remained high. Most hunters who come to these areas fly in from 
Kenora. 

3. Availability of guides 

Nearly 250 non-resident moose hunters descended upon the 
Red Lake Highway area during the first few days of October, and the 
supply of good guides was not sufficient to accommodate them. Some 
were forced to hunt deer only, and others, who took inexperienced 
guides, were quite dissatisfied with the service they got. 

Camp operators were able to provide satisfactory guiding 
service for most hunters, but there is a considerable shortage of 
experienced guides during the first week of the non-resident moose 
season. 

4. Recommendations for next year 

■ ■■ i ■ ■ i ■ ml. hip ■ ^— ..■■■■-. — —.■■■ ■»■■■*/■ m 

(a) The paper seal used in 1955 was quite unsatisfactory. 
Something more durable should be found. 

(b) A circular should be prepared for the guidance of 
licence issuers, stressing the following points: 

- The corresponding licence number should be marked on the 
questionnaire before it is given to the hunter. 

- The stamp of the issuing office must be placed on the questionnaire. 

- Full addresses of hunters must be recorded. 

- The issuers should write in a legible manner when recording names 
and addresses of hunters. 

Much time and information was lost this year due to the 
above points not being observed. 

We are much indebted to the Fish and Wildlife staff at 
Kenora for their contribution to this report. A large proportion 
of Kenora issued moose licences went to hunters who hunted in the 
area covered by this report, and we feel we should register a word 
of thanks for their efforts in soliciting questionnaires and passing 
them on to us. 



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- 47 - 

Additional notes on moose hunting, with regard to band 
areas and sub-areas. (see accompanying maps.) 

Note ; Success ratings here are based upon estimated number of 
hunters and estimated moose kill. 

LSC - excellent hunter success (75$) 

- mostly non-resident hunters 

- absorbed non-residents barred from west end of Lac Seul 

- area is half water, so kill intensity actually greater 
than map indicates 

- known kill" 41 bulls; 27 cows; 10 calves 

LSE - excellent hunter success {11%) 

- more resident hunters than non-residents, due to great 
distance from concentration of tourist camps 

- great water area makes kill appear low 

- accessible from Hudson, by long water trip 

- this area, and LSC provided the districts best hunting, 
with the possible exception of fly-in camps in GN and 
ISL 

- large numbers of moose seen by hunters, so should provide 
excellent hunting again next year 

- known kills 13 bulls; 6 cows; 3 calves. 

LSW - good hunter success {62%) 

- mainly resident hunters (most of area closed to non- 
residents) 

- high production in spite of heavy hunting in recent years 

- known kills 17 bulls; 10 cows; 5 calves 

PT - good hunter success (61$) 

- mainly resident hunters (most of area closed to non- 
residents 

- good production in spite of heavy hunting in recent years 

- known kills 31 bulls; 26 cows; # calves 

GNW - good hunter success (60$) 

- about equally divided between residents and non-residents 

- fairly heavy hunting in recent years has not hurt 
production 

- known kills 14 bulls; 23 cows; 9 calves 

RLP - fair hunter success (4&$) 

- a few more residents than non-residents 

- known kills 34 bulls; 14 cows; 10 calves 

GNC - fair hunting success (46$) 

- mostly non-resident hunters 

- most accessible portion closed to non-residents, and 
non-residents had better success than residents 

- known kills 6 bulls; 8 cows; calves 



- 48 - 

ISL - good hunter success (62%) 

- almost all non-residents 

- large number went in by air 

- known kills 42 bulls; 17 cows; 2 calves 

GN - good hunter success (64%) 

- almost all were non-residents 

- most went in by air 

- known kills 36 bulls ; 9 cows; 1 calf 

SLPW - good hunter success (56%) 

- more non-residents than residents 

- some of area accessible by road and water 

- some non-residents flew in 

- success higher in less accessible northern part 

- known kills 20 bulls; 7 cows; 5 calves 

RL - good hunter success (67%) 

- more non-residents than residents 

- this is the remote portion of Red Lake band area 

- all hunters flew in, or were trappers and fishermen 
living in the area 

- known kills 4 bulls; 7 cows; 2 calves 

LS - good hunter success (63%) 

- evenly divided between residents and non-residents 

- most non-residents flew in 

- known kills 13 bulls; 5 cows; calves 

SL Minn . 

- fair hunter success (3#%) 

- all residents, mostly casual hunters from Sioux Lookout 

- success rating is probably a good indication of the 
population relative to other areas, 

- known kills 7 bulls; 2 cows; 1 calf 

SL sturg. 

- good hunter success (54%) 

- few hunters (area rather hard to get into) 

- practically all residents 

- known kills 12 bullss 2 cowss calves 



9 



SL Arm. 

- fair hunter success (44%) 

- very few hunters (can be reached only by rail) 

- mostly local residents 

- known kills 3 bulls; cows; calves 

Sav.-Arm. 

- fair hunter success (48%) 

- few hunters 

- mostly local residents 

- known kills 5 bulls; 2 cows; 1 calf; 1 unspecified 



- 49 - 

Osnaburgh 

- poor success (17$) 

- very few hunters 

- success rating not significant due to small sample, but 
moose population is lower than to south and west 

- known kills bulls; 1 cow; calves 

In Pickle Lake, Fort Hope, Deer Lake, and Auden areas, there 
were only from 1 to 4 hunters. 

- known kills 3 bulls; 1 cow; calves 



HUDSON BAY 




Patricia West 



Patricia Central 



£§§[ - Heavy - 10.1 or more hunters per 100 square miles. 
- Moderate - 4.1-10.0 hunters per 100 square miles. 



Ie=1 - Low - 2.6-4.0 hunters per 100 square miles 

- Very low - up to 2. 5. hunters per 100 square miles. 

(Based on estimated number of hunters) 
1955 Moose Hunting Pressure (Resident & Non-resident) 






HUDSON 
BAY 




Patricia West 



Patricia Central 



KNWNNN - Very High - 1 moose per 10 square miles or less. 
HE^ - High 



- 1 moose per 10.1-20 aquare miles. 



Y///A - Moderate - 1 moose per 20.1-100 square miles. 
Ill tlH.1 - Low - fewer than 1 moose per 100 square miles. 

(3ased on estimated number of kills) 
1955 Moose Kill Intensity (Resident & Non-resident hunters.) 



- 52 - 



HUDSON 
BAY 




[A WEST* ^~" — r PATRICIA CENTRAL 

1955 Moose Season 
Key to Band Areas and Sub-areas 



- 53 - 

NOTES ON BIRDS OBSERVED AT BIG ISLAND, 

LAKE OF THE WOODS, 

JANUARY 22 - FEBRUARY 8, 1953. 

by 
A. T. Cringan 



During the period January 22 - February &, 1953, 
a field party of from 6-9 persons under the direction of 
R. C. Passraore, was working on Big Island, Lake of the 
Woods. The following notes relate to bird observations 
made incidentally to the main work. 

Seventeen species were observed, although the 
species of owl included in this total cannot be speci- 
fied. While there is little to compare this total to, it 
would seem to indicate an exceptionally high variety of 
species for this portion of the province at this time 
of the year. 

Cooper 7 s Hawk ; 

Common. I saw three single birds of this 
species, and heard of some seen by other members of the 
party. 

Goshawk ; 

Different members of the party described large 
hawks which they saw, in such a way as to suggest goshawks. 

Ruffed Grouse ; 

Very common. This species appeared to be most 
abundant in the mixed wood area in the west half of the 
island ^ but it was also present in hardwood areas, and 
even in alder-willow swales. The habit of tunneling in 
the snow appeared very prevalent. I saw as many as five 
ruffed grouse in one day. 

Two predated ruffed grouse were seen and 
reported on January 23rd. 

Sharp-tailed Grouse ; 

Uncommon. A few individual birds and one flock 
of six were seen by party members at various times. 

Owls ; 

At least two owls were seen, but neither was 
identified. Mr. Gimmer heard an owl one afternoon, and 
his description suggested that it was a great horned owl 
which he had heard. 



- 54 - 

Downy Woodpecker s 

Common. 
Hairy Woodpecker ; 

Common. 

Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker : 

Not common. I saw only one during the entire 
trip. 

Pileated Woodpecker ; 

Common, or possibly very common. It was not 
unusual to see two or three pileated woodpeckers during a 
day"s travel through the timbered portions of the island. 

Canada Jay ; 

Common. 
Black-capped Chickadee ; 

Common. 

Brown-headed Chickadee ; 

Not common. I saw small groups of this species 
only twice. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch ; 

Common. As many as five or six would be recorded 
during a day v s travel in the well-timbered portion of the 
island. 

Pine Grosbeak ; 

Common. Not present in large flocks, but groups 
of one to three were frequently encountered. 

Pine Siskin; 

Common. This species was seen nearly daily, in 
flocks ranging up to 40 or 50 individuals in size. Some 
mixed flocks of siskins and redpolls were noted. 

Redpoll ; 

Less common than siskins, but still fairly 
common. 



- 55 - 

REPORT ON WOODCOCK CENSUS, MAY, 1955 
SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT 

by 

M. W. I. Smith 



During the latter part of May, 1955> four days were spent 
with Mr, Lytle Blankenship, Michigan Department of Conservation, Game 
Division, on a woodcock survey in the Sault Ste. Marie District. 
Mr, Blankenship, who is collecting material for his Ph.D. thesis on 
woodcock, has had considerable experience with this species, and 
working with him was very educational. 

His main interest was in finding the presence and abundance 
of the woodcock in that portion of the District that might furnish 
birds for the migration route through Michigan. He felt that any 
birds from the eastern portion of our District would migrate through 
Southern Ontario and thus miss Michigan, For this reason we decided 
not to check east of Iron Bridge. 

May 24th was spent on St. Joseph Island in company with 
Mr. Blankenship and Conservation Officer Maurice Barton. I showed 
Mr. Blankenship the area where Mr. Harry Lumsden and myself had found 
woodcock in 1951» Mr. Blankenship 9 s dog put up one woodcock in thick 
cover on the edge of a field near Harmony School, St. Joseph Township. 
We then toured the entire island assessing the various cover types. 

Good woodcock range is usually numerous alder thickets 
bordering small openings, fields or pastures in open young mixed or 
hardwood stands. A good census route of necessity should run along 
a stretch of road so as to cover the maximum area in the short time 
woodcock call during the evening. Stops are at least .4 miles apart 
to avoid overlap on the same bird. As the sounds made by a male 
woodcock during the breeding season are difficult to describe, it is 
best that considerable time be spent at first with someone skilled in 
this work. 

Briefly, for a period of approximately half an hour starting 
ten to thirty minutes after sunset during the breeding season, the male 
sits on the ground and utters a call best described as "peent". 
Every few minutes he ceases to call and makes a short, high spiral 
flight several hundred feet above his favored location, uttering a 
continuous twittering call. He then returns to the ground at the same 
spot and resumes his other call. 

The area we finally selected on St. Joseph Island for our 
first census route was on the "W" line in Hilton Township. Boundaries 
were as follows; "W" line beginning at the first turn by the old 
Sim place towards the south end, continuing 3»9 miles northwest to 
last stop just prior to the big curve to the west, approximately 1 1/4 
miles from Hilton Beach, by Fisher farmhouse. 



- 56 - 

Weather was as follows s Sky cloudy, temperature 46°F, 
wind 13 - 17 N.W. (20-25), moon first quarter. 



Time as start 
P.M., D.S.T. 

Results? 



9.30 P.M., D.S.T. Time at finish; 10.05 



#1 


at 





mileage 


- 


1 


bird 


#2 


at 


.4 


mileage 


- 


2 


birds 


#3 


at 


.3 


mileage 


- 


1 


bird 


#4 


at 


1.2 


mileage 


- 


2 


birds 


#5 


at 


1.6 


mileage 


- 





birds 


#6 


at 


2.1 


mileage 


- 


0- 


-1 bird 


#7 


at 


2.5 


mileage 


- 


1- 


-2 birds 


m 


at 


3.0 


mileage 


- 


1 


bird 


p 


at 


3.4 


mileage 


- 


2 


birds 


w 


at 


3.9 


mileage 


- 


1 


bird 



Stop 
Stop 
Stop 
Stop 
Stop 
Stop 
Stop 
Stop 
Stop 
Stop; 

The total of eleven certain birds would have been higher in 
Mr. Blankenship's opinion if the weather had been less windy. A large 
part of St. Joseph Island is good woodcock range. 

May 25th was spent in checking for woodcock range west and 
north of Sault Ste. Marie. Pointe des Chene, Gros Cap, Goulais Bay, 
Cranberry Creek, Batchawana, Montreal River and Searchmont areas were 
appraised. Goulais River to Cranberry Creek in Fenwick Township was 
considered a fair possibility, while the area along Highway #17 north 
and south of the Montreal River was considered to have poor possibilities 
by Mr. Blankenship. The area finally selected for the night ? s census 
was in the vicinity of Searchmont in Gaudette and Hodgins Townships. 
Boundaries were as follows s 

Goulais River, beginning 2.1 miles north of the Searchmont 
Hotel, where side road joins the main road (forks at sand hill, travel- 
ling to Searchmont, omit town section and stop again 0.9 miles south 
of town, continue south to Glendale corner, and turn west and go to last 
stop. 

Weather was as follows t Sky clear, temperature 44°F, wind 
variable 3-7, moon first quarter. 

Time at starts 9.45 P.M., D.S.T., Time at finishs 10.20 

P.M., D.S.T. 



Results! 



Stop #1 at mileage - 1 bird 
Stop #2 at .4 mileage - 2 birds 
Stop #3 at .8 mileage - 3 birds 
Stop #4 at 1.2 mileage - 0-1 birds 
Stop #5 at 1.6 mileage - 2 birds 
Stop #6 at 2.0 mileage - 2 birds 



- 57 - 



Sub-total at Searchmont 
Stop #8 at 2.9 mileage 
Stop #9 at 3.3 mileage 
Stop #10 at 3.7 mileage 
Stop #11 at 4.1 mileage 
Stop #12 at 4. 5 mileage 
Stop #13 at 4.9 mileage 



10-11 birds 

2- 3 birds 

1 bird 

3 bird 

3 birds 

1 bird 

1 bird 



The total of 21-23 birds could have been augmented by 4-5 
woodcock heard at five stops in various places beyond the census 
route. Comparing the route travelled with the rest of the Goulais 
River valley, two or more routes could be set up along the Goulais 
River. 

May 26th was spent in a journey up the Chapleau Highway to 
Township 7D, as well as side trips in the Mountain Ash and Peshu Lake 
roads. The census route finally chosen was entirely within the 194$ 
Mississagi burn, where Mr. Blankenship had little hope of finding 
woodcock due to the rocks and sandy nature of the soil, with consequent 
lack of earthworms, a principal food item of woodcocks. The cover was 
good however, in some areas along the Wenebegon River parallel to the 
highway. Boundaries were as follows i 

Beginning 4.1 miles north of Peshu Lake road on Chapleau road by 
Oxbow Lake, continuing south to Peshu Lake road, turning east on 
Peshu road and go to entrance of Department of Lands and Forests 
Headquarters, Peshu Lake. 



Weathers 
quarter. 



Sky cloudy, temperature 58°F, wind 3-7 S.E., moon first 



Time at starts 9.35 P.M., D.S.T., Time at finish; 10.10 P.M., D.S.T. 
Results: 



Stop 


#1 


at 





mileage 


— 


0-1 


birds 


Stop 


#2 


at 


. 4 


mileage 


- 


0-1 


birds 


Stop 


P 


at 


1.0 


mileage 


- 





birds 


Stop 


#4 


at 


1.4 


mileage 


- 





birds 


Stop 


#5 


at 


1.8 


mileage 


- 


0-1 


birds 


Stop 


i 6 


at 


2.5 


mileage 


- 





birds 


Stop 


#7 


at 


2.9 


mileage 


- 


0-1 


birds 


Stop 


h 


at 


3.3 


mileage 


- 





birds 


Stop 


#9 


at 


4.1 


mileage 


- 





birds 


Stop 


#10 


at 


4.8 


mileage 


- 





birds 


Stop #11 


at 


5.2 


mileage 


- 





birds 



Total of zero birds was as anticipated, though there were 
faint sounds of possible flights in the distance. In this connection, 
while I had learned to identify the "Peent" and flight song of a male 
woodcock while working with Mr. Harry Lumsden in 1951> Mr. Blankenship 
showed me in an area such as the 1948 Mississagi burn where birds are 



- 5$ - 

scarce to non-existent that it is possible to confuse momentarily 
the sound emitted by a nighthawk in flight with the "Peent" of a 
woodcock on the ground. However, the shifting location of the 
nighthawk 9 s call soon removes any doubt as to its origin. The 
twittering flight song of a woodcock is somewhat reminiscent of a 
cicada, but cannot be mistaken at close range once learned. 

May 27th we proceeded down the Mississagi with a side trip 
to Rocky Island Lake. James Dees, Black Creek Towerman, had seen a 
woodcock on the tower trail several years ago, and Mr. Blankenship 
thought the area around the tower cabin was potential range, especially 
as there are numerous earthworms in the clearing. 

The area from the Chapleau Highway through Grassett and 
Parkinson Townships to the White River was considered very good 
woodcock range. 

Northwest of Thessalon, census routes in Dunn's Valley and 
along the Thessalon River in the vicinity of Poplardale were con- 
sidered, but very heavy rain put a stop to plans for running a census 
in this area at that time. 

May 28th the results of the coverage of the District were 
tabulated by Mr. Blankenship and myself. He seemed of the opinion 
that we may have quite a high woodcock population in the southern 
portions of the District and a consequent large production of this 
valuable game bird. We discussed at length the possibility of annual 
re-checking of our census routes, plus addition of new routes, and 
the possibility of banding some male adults. Altogether it was a very 
informative week that showed me the possibilities for expanded census 
work with this elusive and valuable game bird. 



- 59 - 

WATERFOWL BREEDING GROUND SURVEY, TWEED DISTRICT, 1956. 

by 

W. W. Bittle 



A Piper Cub Aircraft was rented from the Gananoque Air 
Service Ltd on May 14 in order to carry out the 1956 waterfowl 
breeding ground survey. 

Place - Immediate vicinity of Wolfe and Amherst Islands and Prince 
Edward County. 

Time - May 14-3 hours 
May 15 - lj hours 

Weather - May 14 - mostly light overcast with few sunny periods. 
Winds - southwest 20 m.p.h. increasing to 60. At this 
point we had to turn back. 
May 15 - skies clear, winds light. 

Height of aircraft off water - 100 ft., less in some areas. 

Speed of aircraft - maximum SO m.p.h. (air speed) 

As noted on the tally sheet, most of the ducks were 
sighted in the vicinity of Wolfe and Amherst Islands. Many of these 
were in flocks and therefore, the survey may have been somewhat early 
due to the lateness of spring. 

Although rough weather was encountered, visibility for both 
days was very good. Female black birds could be seen perched on reeds 
as well as sandpipers along the shoreline. Large schools of carp were 
clearly seen in shallow waters. 

As black duck sexes are alike, it was simply taken for 
granted that 2 ducks together were a male and female and recorded 
as such. All others were singles or unspecified. 

Of the one large flock of mallards, approximately 200, 
it is any person's guess as to whether they eventually broke up in 
pairs and remained in the area, or flew elsewhere to nesting grounds. 
Some blacks and mallards were sighted in swamps sheltered by large 
deciduous trees. The ones sighted were those that were scared up by 
the aircraft and arose above the tree tops. It appears likely that 
many ducks were missed in areas such as this. 

For the greater part the marshes appear to be very dense 
giving way to becoming a solid mass. (Land rising above water.) 



- 60 - 

Carp were seen almost everywhere in shallow water, 
splashing and floundering about and no doubt, scaring ducks from 
suitable breeding ground habitat. 

Conservation Officers who are familiar with this area 
feel that there are more ducks than indicated by this report. Many 
of the ducks, they state, are nesting in areas shrouded by a canopy 
of dense brush and trees. A ground check for comparison will be made 
as soon as possible. 



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- 63 - 

SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT CREEL CENSUS - 1955 

by 
K. H. Loftus 



A creel census was conducted in the Sault Ste, Marie 
District for the fifth consecutive year in 1955. 

As in all previous years the data were gathered at the 
travel permit gates on the White River road and on the Thessalon- 
Chapleau highway. As suggested in our 1954 report, log books were 
supplied to tourist operators in the Sand Lake Division, This 
practice, suggested and followed up by Conservation Officer E, M. 
Montgomery, provided more and better data than did the creel 
census cards he used in 1954. 

A further decline in the amount and quality of data 
gathered at the travel permit gates was noted . This decline was 
particularly bad in view of the fact that an additional gate and 
census point on the Quirke Lake road in the Blind River Division 
was in operation* Our efforts at improving the collection of data 
at the two original gates suffered, as did many projects, from the 
burdens of an exceptionally heavy fire occurrence. 

During January, February and March of 1955, Conservation 
Officer St. John conducted a census of ice fishermen in the 
Thessalon-Iron Bridge area. This represented a new extension of 
our census, which was designed to gather data concerning the crop 
taken by the annually increasing number of sportsmen who enjoy 
this particular form of relaxation. The data, so gathered, are 
reported separately. 

A total of 2,962 anglers reported their catch to 
Conservation Officers and to gate personnel. Of these, 74$ were 
fishing through the ice, and of the remaining 2,214; only 684 
reported at the three travel permit gates. Thus, the coverage by 
Mr. Montgomery increased from 456 anglers in 1954 to 1,566 in 1955. 

We now feel that we have the broadest coverage of angling 
yet achieved by a census in this district. Our first few years 9 
data described, for the most part, the catches made by anglers 
who camped out and hired no guides. Our 1954 data included these 
people and also a good proportion of anglers who stayed at tourist 
lodges and who were guided. In the 1955 data we have included the 
ice fishermen with both of the above. 

Analysis 

A summary of the data for the summer angler census appears 
in Table #1, and for the ice fishermen in Table #2. The latter will 
be discussed under a separate heading. 



- 64 - 

Table #3 presents a list of waters for which tourist 
operators in the Sand Lake Division submitted data and on which 
reports to the operators will be made,. It also lists data on 
waters for which summer anglers submitted considerable data and 
on which we should follow angling trends for a number of years» 

Fifty-three (53) percent of all summer anglers reported 
that they had fished for speckled trout. Seventeen (17) percent 
angled for pike, fifteen (15) percent for lake trout, and twelve 
(12) percent for pickerel. The relative decrease in the proportion 
of pike fishermen and the increase in lake trout and pickerel 
anglers reflect the improvement in the census of the Sand Lake 
Division and the decline in the Mississagi and White River gate 
census. The inclusion of data from the new source on the Quirke 
Lake road, which provides access to lake trout and pickerel waters, 
is also reflected in these figures. 

The remaining three (3) percent of the summer anglers 
tried their luck with rainbow trout, smallmouth bass and splake. 
It should again be emphasized that our census still does not 
include coverage of the extreme southern part of the district where 
the smallmouth bass is a relatively important species. 

Speckled Trout 

Speckled trout, by far the most popular species, were 
caught at the rate of 0.9 fish per hour. This rate again repre- 
sents a slight improvement over the 1954 rate of 0.8 per hour. 
Again this apparent improvement in the quality of fishing must be 
attributed to the relatively greater amount of data originating 
in the Sand Lake Division where angling for this species is 
excellent. A sharp decline in the quality of speckled trout 
angling in 1955 is to be expected as a result of drought conditions 
which prevailed in 1955 and which must surely have seriously 
affected trout populations. 

The markedly larger average size of the speckled trout 
caught increased the average creel weight to three pounds and 
three ounces, an increase of five ounces over that in 1954, even 
though the anglers caught fewer trout than in 1954. Six (6) 
percent of the speckled trout anglers were unsuccessful. 

Northern Pike 

Although our broader data more correctly place pike in 
the district's popularity poll, this species is still the most 
sought after species by the itinerant angler on the Chapleau 
highway. The decline in quality of pike angling, reported in 1954, 
has apparently ended. The rate of capture for this species in 
1955 reached 0«9 per hour as compared to 0,6 per hour in 1954. 
The pike creeled by the average angler has a gross weight of 26 
pounds, as compared to IB pounds in 1954. This improvement is due 
partly to improved conditions in Rocky Island Lake, and partly 
due to the inclusion of new data available for the first time in 
the Sand Lake Division. Again almost all [9&%) pike fishermen 
had successful trips. 



- 65 - 

Lake Trout 

The opening up of good lake trout waters in the Blind 
River Division, and the popularity of such newly accessible areas, 
is clearly evident in our data for lake trout anglers. The rate 
of capture of lake trout jumped sharply from the 1954 rate of 
0.2 to 0.3 in 1955. Although the average angler fished a much 
shorter length of time and took a few less fish, the average size 
of his lake trout was such that his creel weighed seven pounds 
and three ounces in 1955 as compared to five pounds in 1954. 

Pickerel 

Our improved census in 1955 has given us the first good 
measure of this district ? s pickerel angling. This species attracted 
twelve percent of the anglers who reported. These anglers caught 
pickerel which averaged eighteen inches in length at the rate of 
0.44 per hour and carried home a creel weighing approximately 
eight pounds and twelve ounces. 

Rainbow Trout and Sma llmouth Bass 

Our census again gave us little data for these species 
which are relatively unimportant in the areas covered. 

Splake 

Although our data on anglers for this new game fish are 
few, the novelty of the hybrid is such that these data merit 
inclusion in this report. We know of five anglers who had 
successful trips to our rather inaccessible splake producing 
lake, and we know of two others who had no luck. The lucky anglers 
fished in the spring; the others during and after a long hot 
spell of weather. The early anglers reported catching splake 
readily in shallow water, and emphasized the gameness of the 
hybrid. The average length of those caught was about fourteen 
inches, having a length range of from thirteen to sixteen inches. 

Census of Ice Fishermen 

Seven hundred and forty-eight (743) anglers fishing 
through the ice of ten (10) district lakes provided the sample 
on which this census is based. Although trout of good size were 
taken in Lakes Matinenda, Depot and Axe, most of the anglers 
fished on Chiblow and Basswood Lakes where the average size was 
from fifteen to sixteen inches. Thus the average size of trout 
in the winter angler's creel was smaller than that of summer 
anglers. The rate of capture was less for the winter fishermen 
and they took home fewer fish per trip than did summer anglers. 

Comments 

Although there was a further decline in the quality 
of the census taken at the original travel permit gates, other 
improvements and additions to our data brought us closer to an 
adequate census of the district's angling in 1955. Some gaps 
in our information still remain. These are; (1) data on angling 



- 66 T 

by tourist camp parties in the travel permit areas, (2) data for 
the Ranger Lake area, and (3) data for the bass fishing area at 
the southernmost part of the district. Plans for sampling these 
areas in 1956 through the efforts of conservation officers and 
tourist operators are being made. 

The data made available for the census through the 
efforts of Conservation Officers Montgomery and St. John was 
excellent and clearly demonstrates the value of participation 
by these officers in such programs. 



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- 69 - 

TABLE #3 - Creel Census - Summer Anglers - 1955 on 
Important Waters. 



Name of Water 

LAKE TROUT 

Sand Lake 
Clear Lake 
Tabor Lake 
Ear Lake 
McCarthy Lake 
Kindiogami Lake 
Dunlop Lake 
Elliot Lake 
Grandeur Lake 
Depot Lake 
Marshland Lake 
Quirke Lake 
Esten Lake 
Ten Mile Lake 

RAINBOW TROUT 

Lower Montreal R. 

SPECKLED TROUT 

Hubert Lake 
Caldwell Lake 
Lower Montreal R. 
Kenawabi River 
Twin Lakes 
Otter Lake 
Morrison Lake 
Agawa River 
Mystery Lake 
Mud Lake 
Sherman Lake 
Dossier Lake 
Wartz Lake 
Spider Lake 
Old Woman Lake 
Long Lake 
Little Trout Lake 
Rainbow Lake 
Huchson Lake 
Royal Lake 



No. of 


No. of 


Fish 


Fish 


Average 


Anglers 


Rod Hrs. 


Retained 


Caught 


Length 


27 


45 


7 


7 


23" 


8 


88 


10 


10 


16.5" 


4 


8 


18 


23 


14" 


2 


10 


9 


9 


19" 


2 


10 


1 


1 


19" 


14 


330 


48 


51 


18" 


65 


732 


225 


249 


18" 


35 


271 


112 


122 


19" 


8 


48 


33 


40 


22" 


29 


216 


68 


68 


21" 


19 


142 


57 


57 


19" 


8 


69 


21 


21 


23" 


8 


63 


27 


27 


20" 


14 


110 


78 


102 


18" 



25 



10 

37 

4 

3 

16 

65 
75 
20 

4 

9 

52 

225 

6 

15 
6 
2 
2 

25 
2 



146 



35 
42 

258 

16 

6 

68 

338 

282 
82 
22 
46 

238 

1362 

18 

104 

48 

10 

8 

217 
10 



64 



64 



21" 



19 


19 


12" 


163 


172 


17" 


30 


36 


11" 


45 


51 


11" 


34 


42 


10" 


260 


337 


11.5" 


112 


150 


10" 


17 


17 


15.5" 


15 


15 


10.5" 


25 


25 


13" 


434 


434 


11.5" 


181 


190 


11.5" 


1 


1 


15" 


64 


68 


12" 


51 


57 


14" 


26 


26 


15" 


11 


11 


12" 


309 


309 


12" 



■'• • ., 



Table #3 (cont'd) 



- 70 - 





No. of 


No. of 


Fish 


Fish 


Average 


Name of Water 


Anglers 
3 


Rod Hrs. 
12 


Retained 
2 


Caught 
4 


Length 


Cruder Mill Lake 


11 s ' 


Menzie Lake 


19 


113 


249 


249 


11" 


Massie Lake 


13 


62 


63 


71 


14" 


Overland Lake 


63 


276 


271 


287 


13" 


Kwagama Lake 


264 


1104 


535 


581 


14" 


Sand Lake 


60 


287 


256 


299 


11.5" 


Sand River 


46 


256 


168 


261 


9.5" 


Spruce Lake 


4 


32 


60 


70 


9.5" 


Kay Lake 


12 


74 


69 


86 


10.5" 


Chain Lake 


6 


39 


7 


8 


10,5" 


NORTHERN PIKE 












Big Pike Lake 


11 


37 


9 


9 


18" 


An ji garni Lake 


90 


191 


34 


273 


21" 


Ogas Lake 


8 


19 


- 


19 


- 


Montreal Lake 


114 


903 


163 


625 


28" 


Seabrook Lake 


10 


56 


37 


37 


18" 


Rocky Island Lake 


87 


1287 


436 


1378 


24" 


PICKEREL 












Anjigami Lake 


91 


235 


283 


334 


15" 


Ogas Lake 


175 


2419 


56 


706 


18" 



- 71 - 

OCCURRENCE OF CARP ON THE NORTH SHORE OF LAKE SUPERIOR, 

PORT ARTHUR AND GERALDTON DISTRICTS 

by 
R. A. Ryder 



To date there have been three authentic reports of the 
carp, Cyprin.us carpio , occurring on the North Shore of Lake Superior, 
in the Port Arthur and Geraldton Districts. 

The first was captured by William Legault in his pound net 
off the West end of Simpson Island on August 13, 1954. This was 
reported at that time by John Budd, Research Division, to Dr. A. E. 
Allin of Fort William. The carp was said to be a ripe male weighing 
eight pounds. 

On September 10, 1954, Dr. Allin caught a small carp, 82 
mm. in length, with his hands while duck hunting off Island No. 1, 
Fort William. At that time he corresponded with Dr. Samuel Eddy of 
the University of Minnesota and was informed that there were no 
records for carp on the Minnesota shoreline of Lake Superior. 

A Fort William resident discovered another carp while duck 
hunting on the city's waterfront on November 22, 1955 • It was a 
specimen measuring 140 mm. and is believed to be only the third 
record for the North-Central portion of Lake Superior. Most fish 
reported to the Port Arthur District Office as being carp invariably 
turn out to be redhorse suckers, Moxostoma spp. , with the above 
noted exceptions. 

The only other authentic record within the District is from 
the mouth of Maki Creek on Lake Helen, June 25, 1953. Any carp 
which might have established themselves in Lake Helen have access to 
Lake Superior via the Nipigon River. It is possible that the carp 
encountered in the District to date have been released from anglers' 
minnow buckets and perhaps have not become established. In Lake 
Helen there are large expanses of weed beds for carp feeding and 
reproduction, and it is quite possible that carp could establish a 
population providing they occur in adequate numbers, and there are 
suitable conditions for a successful spawning season. However, low 
water temperatures might inhibit spawning or at least delay it enough 
for the fry to miss the benefit of rapid growth in spring and early 
summer. 

Both Lake Helen and several warm, shallow bays in Lake 
Superior deserve careful scrutiny for any significant increase in 
numbers of carp being recorded. 



- 72 - 
THE LAKE SCUGOG CARP REMOVAL PROGRAMME, 1947 - 1955. 

by 

H. R. McCrimmon 



At the request of residents of the Lake Scugog area, a 
carp removal programme was initiated in the waters of Lake Scugog 
during the spring of 1947. This work was carried out annually 
until 1955 when the project was discontinued. In order that the 
Department may have a compiled record of that work, this report has 
been prepared, 

The harvest of coarse fish was done by means of pound nets 
set at several locations in the lake, both the location and number 
of nets varying from year to year. During the course of the opera- 
tions, numerous maskinonge and largemouth bass were captured and 
released. In view of their availability, largemouth bass were obtained 
for fish culture at the Mount Pleasant Hatchery each year and in some 
years maskinonge were spawned to provide eggs for the Deer Lake 
Hatchery. Carp and other coarse fish were removed and, being of 
insignificant commercial value, destroyed. Since 1952, a study has 
been carried out on maskinonge diseased with a sarcoma in Lake Scugog 
and the carp removal programme became modified to accommodate the 
research on cancer done by Dr. R. Ritchie of Banting Institute. 

The records of fish taken by means of pound nets between 
1947 and 1955 are given in the following table: 



1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 Total 



Maskinonge 

Bass 

Carp 

Suckers 

Bullheads 

Burbot 

Pickerel 



104 

1281 

244 

875 

4390 



2177 1111 6328 5563 



695 


2405 


2258 


845 


6307 


3287 


4528 


6760 


5558 


21414 


1021 


3557 


2541 


1971 


24513 


626 


745 


2890 


660 


5796 


1525 


2489 


4055 


1445 


13904 


- 


17 


- 


18 


35 


- 


- 


- 


92 


92 



In analyzing the results of the carp removal programme, 
there is no indication that the population of carp has been effectively 
lowered although some 24,513 carp (estimated at 101,729 pounds) were 
removed. No significant changes in growth rates were noted. The 
effect on the carp population cannot be considered too serious in view 
of the large population of largemouth bass and maskinonge present in 
the lake which are not adequately harvested by anglers on account of 
the weedy condition of the lake. Other coarse fish would seem to 
present no problem in the management of the lake. 

A matter of interest has been the appearance of burbot in 
the nets in 1953 and 1955, and of yellow pickerel in 1955. Few, if 
any of these species have been taken by anglers to date. 



R E